1Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2College of Life Science, Jilin University, 3Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Gatineau, Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Gatineau, 4Department of Anthropology, Simon Fraser University, 5Department of Anthropology, Northwest Community College,, 6Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Friday All day, Plaza Level
After European contact Native American populations collapsed due to the introduction of infectious disease and warfare. This drastic population bottleneck was hypothesized to result in large differences in allele frequencies in the same population pre- and post-European contact due to genetic drift.
In order to test the hypothesis of temporal stability of mitochondrial genomes on the Northwest Coast, DNA were extracted from human teeth recovered from ancient sites located on British Columbia's Central Coastand radiocarbon-dated to 1,000-5,000 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/Sanger DNA sequencing and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). All ancient mitochondrial genome sequences of ancient individuals were compared to mitochondrial genome sequences of contemporary Native American population on the Northwest Coast.
Our results suggest a pattern of temporal stability over 5,000 years of mitochondrial genomes in populations on the Northwest Coast. Our results are in agreement with previous studies that showed patterns of temporal stability in mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies in populations residing in other regions of North America. Collectively, these results suggest that mitochondrial genome variation experienced little disruption during the population collapse following European contact.