1Center for the Study of Human Origins, Anthropology Department, New York University, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, 3Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine
Thursday Afternoon, 301D
Kinda baboons display a suite of morphological and behavioral characteristics unique within Papio, the significance of which can be better understood in a phylogenetic perspective. To do this, we have collected genetic data, including mitochondrial (mtDNA) and Y-chromosomal (YDNA) sequences and microsatellite allele frequencies. In both mtDNA and YDNA phylogenies, kindas have quite derived haplotypes compared to other baboons. Divergence date estimates suggest a relatively early split (> 1 Ma) from their closest relative, P. cynocephalus. For mtDNA, the deepest split within P. kindae is between kinda populations east (Mahale Mountains NP) and southwest (Zambia) of Lake Tanganyika, dated to about 1.7 Ma. However, the Mahale kinda males have Y-chromosomal TSPY and SRY haplotypes identical to Zambian kindas. As kindas are male dispersing and female philopatric, this pattern implies that the Mahale population has not been isolated from other kindas for the full 1.7 million years. Zambian Kinda populations show fairly low levels of mitochondrial haplotype diversity, forming one clade that coalesces at ~0.3 Ma. Similarly, microsatellite data show low levels of population structure within these kindas (FST = 0.033, p < 0.05). Mahale kindas are larger than those from the main part of the kinda range, and are similar to P. angusticeps and small P. cynocephalus in size and craniofacial shape. Given this, the ancestor of P. kindae may have been like a small P. cynocephalus. The very small size (and overall pedomorphism) of most P. kindae likely evolved sometime after the split with the Mahale kindas.