1School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, 2School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, 3Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, 4Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 5Centro de Conservação e Manejo de Fauna da Caatinga, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, 6Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidade de Viçosa
Saturday 10:45-11:00, 200ABC
As an evolutionary force, outcomes of hybridization include introgression, admixture, speciation, or reproductive isolation. While hybridization has been studied in several primates, the marmoset genus Callithrix is an important, but little studied example of Neotropical hybridization. Low reproductive isolation is a hallmark of Callithrix species, and hybridization occurs throughout the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, either at natural species borders or between introduced, native marmosets and exotic C. jacchus/C. penicillata populations. Interbreeding between various Callithrix species carries important implications for the biodiversity and genetic integrity of this genus. However, genetic levels of introgression and admixture in hybrid zones are generally unknown. Additionally, there are few population genetic studies of individual Callithrix species.
Here we explore the genetic diversity of C. penicillata and C. jacchus among pure marmosets, as well within two hybrid zones. Using the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region, we reveal the existence of a previously undocumented natural hybrid zone along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil. Median-joining network analysis and a maximum likelihood phylogeny shows two largely distinctive mtDNA control region clades for each species. Although, we identify a total of 45 different mtDNA haplotypes among C. jacchus and 25 among C. penicillata, the latter show higher levels of nucleotide diversity than the former. We have also identified a panel of over 20 diagnostic microsatellite markers between C. jacchus and C. penicillata which will be used to study admixture within the newly discovered natural hybrid zone, and a previously established artificial hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state.
This research has graciously been funded by a Fulbright Fellowship, National Science Foundation Doctoral Disseration Improvement Grant (#1061508), ASU Sigma-Xi Research Grant, ASU GPSA Research Grant, ASU SOLS FIGG, and International Primatological Society Research Grant.