The 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2013)

The Bronze Age Cemetery from Hăpria, Romania


1Anthropology, Wellesley College, 2Anthropology, “Francisc I. Rainer” Institute of Anthropology, Romanian Academy, Bucharest.

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This poster examines 27 Bronze Age human skeletons of the cultural group Livezile from the sight of Hăpria, Romania dating between 2900-2400 BC. The Livezile were located in the western branch of the Carpathian Mountains (Apuseni Mountains) in Transylvania, Romania. This group produced 21 funeral discoveries (66% cemeteries, 25% groups of graves and 9% isolated graves). Hăpria is the only site with flat graves. Skeletal analysis indicates an age range from infants to adults in their 40’s. Among the sample were seven children ranging from six months to 10 years, and one teenager approximately 13-16 years old. Of the 27 skeletons analyzed, 10 were male, five were female and 12 were undetermined due to poor preservation of sexual characteristics.

The most common disease present was Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) with 10 of the 27 (37%) individuals affected. Of the 10 skeletons exhibiting DJD seven (70%) were at least 30, but no older than 50. Foot bones (50%), proximal and distal femurs (30%), thoracic vertebrae (40%), and proximal ulnae (30%) had the highest incidence of DJD. One case of trauma was present. A male skeleton displayed an oblique cut mark going anteriosuperior to posterioinferior on the left medial calcaneus. No evidence of healing suggests he may have died from his wound.

Analysis of the tumulus graves can provide clues to the social organization of the Livezile, and skeletal analysis can help us to better understand the cultural and physical changes communities from the Apuseni Mountains experienced over their existence.

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