1Complexity Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2Statistics and Bioinformatics Group, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, New Zealand, 3Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Estonia, 4Genome Diversity and Diseases Laboratory, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Indonesia, 5Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, UK, 6APE Lab, Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy, 7CNRS, Université de Toulouse, France, 8Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, 9Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Indonesia, 10Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia, 11Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, 12Stockholm Resilience Center, Kräftriket, Sweden
March 28, 2019 10:45, CC Ballroom A
Genome sequences are known for two archaic hominins – Neanderthals and Denisovans – which interbred with anatomically modern humans as they dispersed out of Africa. By excavating archaic haplotypes from 161 new genomes spanning 14 island groups in Island Southeast Asia and Papua, we find large stretches of DNA that are inconsistent with a single introgressing Denisovan origin. Instead, modern Papuans carry hundreds of gene variants from two deeply divergent Denisovan lineages, separated by over 350 thousand years. Geographical structure in these lineages implies introgression from Denisovans living east of the Wallace line and suggests considerable complexity in archaic contact among Papuan groups. A third Denisovan lineage occurs in modern Siberians, Native Americans and East Asians. This regional mosaic suggests that modern humans interbred with multiple Denisovan populations, which were geographically isolated from each other over deep evolutionary time.