1Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, 2Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research, University of Oklahoma, 3Department of Biological Sciences, Centre MURAZ, Burkina Faso, 4Director, Ministry of Health, Burkina Faso, 5Département de pathologie et microbiologie, Université de Montréal, Canada, 6Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma
March 28, 2019 , CC Room 26 C
Anthropological studies comparing gut microbiomes of individuals leading traditional lifestyles, such as hunter-gatherers, to urban, industrialized individuals, show that lifestyle impacts gut microbiome composition. These studies suggest that traditional communities have higher gut microbial diversity as well as increased abundance of certain bacterial taxa, especially those involved in fiber digestion. Still unresolved, however, are the ways in which lifestyle variation, including the built environment, impacts microbiome variation within traditional communities. For this study, we collected fecal samples from 120 individuals, stratified by age, sex, family, and multifamily “quartiers” (compounds) from a village in central Burkina Faso. DNA was extracted at Centre MURAZ in Burkina Faso and the 16S rRNA V4 amplicon was sequenced at the University of Oklahoma. Amplicon sequences were bioinformatically processed with the USEARCH v10 pipeline for de novo Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) clustering at 97% sequence similarity. Overall, the Burkinabe samples were similar to other traditional populations, such as Matses hunter-gatherers from Peru, with high alpha diversity (OTU richness) compared to published data from industrialized American populations (p-value < 4 x 10-9), as well as the presence of taxa found in traditional, but not industrial, populations: Treponema, Succinovibrio, and Prevotella. Abundance of various taxa, including Prevotella, Oscillibacter, Collinsella, Sporobacter, and Subdoligranulum was significantly associated with quartier (fdr adjusted p-value < 0.003) but not other lifestyle variables. Thus, we demonstrate that intra-village gut microbiome variation is driven primarily by sharing (or lack thereof) of quartiers, providing a link between microbial ecological dynamics and living-space.